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Industries change. Will you be ready? Understand the "why" behind the "what" to pinpoint your next opportunity. Futureproof your business decisions with market statistics, reports, analytics and custom research you can trust. Launch a product or service, enter a market or channel, target new consumers and be prepared for change. Increase your bottom line. In the United States U. The rate of natural resource depletion is not sustainable, and it endangers the ecosystem.
Multiple reports have cited the first and last stages of the FSC as the most significant contributors of FLW and environmental resource depletion. This literature review attempts to provide a comprehensive assessment of the intricacies of the FSC, the multi-variable causes of global FLW at the production and consumption stages, its environmental implications and the necessary sustainability compliant actions.
Fig 2. Fig 3. DFAM altered circadian oscillation of hepatic clock genes in rats.
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Fig 4. DFAM delayed circadian oscillation of lipid metabolism related genes in liver. Fig 5. DFAM delayed circadian oscillation of glucose metabolism related genes in liver.
DFAM slightly affected circadian oscillations of clock genes in epididymal adipose tissue We also analyzed the circadian oscillation of clock genes in epididymal adipose tissue S2 Fig , S8 Table and S9 Table. Discussion Breakfast skipping increases the risk of obesity, higher body mass index, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes in humans [ 35 — 38 ].
Supporting information. S1 Table. Primer sequences for quantitative real-time PCR. S2 Table. The amount of hepatic lipids in DFAM rats. S3 Table. S4 Table. S5 Table. S6 Table. S7 Table. S8 Table. S9 Table.
S1 Fig. DFAM did not change locomotor activity in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. S2 Fig. DFAM slightly delayed circadian oscillation of clock genes in epididymal adipose tissue. References 1. Circadian clocks: regulators of endocrine and metabolic rhythms. J Endocrinol. Coordinated transcription of key pathways in the mouse by the circadian clock. Stratmann M, Schibler U. Properties, entrainment, and physiological functions of mammalian peripheral oscillators. J Biol Rhythms. The mammalian circadian timing system: organization and coordination of central and peripheral clocks.
Annu Rev Physiol. Coordination of circadian timing in mammals.
Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery
Duez H, Staels B. The nuclear receptors Rev-erbs and RORs integrate circadian rhythms and metabolism. Diab Vasc Dis Res. Physiol Genomics. NFIL3 is a negative regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Metab Clin Exp. Transcriptional repressor E4-binding protein 4 E4BP4 regulates metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 FGF21 during circadian cycles and feeding. J Biol Chem. Cell Metab. Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake. Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain. Asher G, Sassone-Corsi P. Time for food: the intimate interplay between nutrition, metabolism, and the circadian clock.
Estimating the health consequences of flight attendant work: comparing flight attendant health to the general population in a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. J Natl Cancer Inst. Shift work and metabolic syndrome: respective impacts of job strain, physical activity, and dietary rhythms. Chronobiol Int. Increased risk of ischaemic heart disease in shift workers. Night-shift work increases morbidity of breast cancer and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of 16 prospective cohort studies. Sleep Med. Is there an association between shift work and having a metabolic syndrome?
Results from a population based study of 27, people. Occup Environ Med.
Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment. Froy O. The relationship between nutrition and circadian rhythms in mammals. Front Neuroendocrinol. Dickmeis T.